british high command

British Military Leadership in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars, High Command, Christopher Elliott, Oxford university press.

In an actual battle, of course, conditions-especially of weather-were often far from ideal and could change quite rapidly. Patrice Courcelle a été invité à exposer, seul, à l’École Militaire de Paris et de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan, au château de Morges en Suisse, etc. In attempting to go so far in the first instance Haig and his Army Commander Gough had overreached themselves. What all this meant was that the BEF in 1917 was the last allied army standing. The judicial execution by the. This time he would attack out of the salient around the ruined city of Ypres, advance 50 or so miles to the Belgian coast, cut the German railway system, and again, if the Germans did not immediately surrender, he would have at least forced a major retreat on them and loosened their hold on much of Belgium.

( Log Out /  Nothing more could be expected from that quarter. By acting as they did Haig and Gough (and inexplicably in the last phase, Plumer), risked the last army capable of sustained offensive action. If their enormous bombardment of 4.3 million shells had not destroyed the German army, it had certainly destroyed the drainage system in this low-lying area of Flanders. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. In the case of the hostile guns they were also out of direct sight of the attacking artillery. Command, Training and Tactics in the British and German Armies, 1888-1918.

It was found that when an enemy gun fired, microphones placed across the front could detect the noise and trace-with some accuracy-the source of the sound back to its origin. At the same time another technique called sound-ranging was being developed to assist the artillery firing at distant enemy guns. Request PDF | British High Command in the First World War: An Overview | The First World War presented Britain with military challenges unique in its history. Sir Douglas Haig, Commander in Chief of the BEF in France at the end of the war, entered the war with a pre-conceived understanding of how the war should be fought. The dry weather also meant that the sound detecting microphones could be used.

They would cope. Indeed, he had to act or he would have had no army with which to conduct operations. font-weight: 500; Haig, as ever, saw German morale on the brink of collapse. One was that that no gun could deliver all the shells it fired to exactly the same spot. He had become prime minister on the promise of the `knock out blow’ against Germany. During his time as Prime Minister he had followed a policy of appeasement of the Nazis in an attempt to avert war. Its demise might mean the demise of the allied cause before American intervention amounted to much. ihcCheckLoginField('log', 'Please complete all required fields! However, these methods could have been implemented at the very beginning of the campaign and broken off when conditions made them inappropriate.

Second, there was the problem that on most occasions when the artillery fired at a target, they missed. There were a number of factors involved here. At Third Ypres there were hundreds of them. padding: .3em 1em; important; What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin?

Published for the first time in England during the American War of lndependence, it was reprinted many times, probably until the middle of the 19th century. COMMENTdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a5d029c2115003b45db5a767224c8b3f" );document.getElementById("f358050a74").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, HUNDRED DAYS & WATERLOO – BRITISH GENERAL OFFICERS, THE CAPOTE OF THE FRENCH INFRANTRYMAN AT THE END OF THE EMPIRE (1) THE THEORY. For maximum protection of the infantry this had to be fired at a pre-determined rate-it would advance say at two or three minutes per 100 yards. The Italians had been shattered by the Austro-Hungarians in May in 1916 on the Trentino.

He was in that sense at one with Haig. Later he was discovered stuck fast in a shell hole. Manufacturer: Perry Miniatures. So a typical battle would commence with an enormous bombardment during which the artillery would aim to destroy all the enemy trenches and take out most of the hostile artillery. But he was attempting an unprecedented task-the capture a defensive zone 10,000 yards in depth on a front of attack of 13,000 yards.

But that was still four miles away. (This had come about because all armies had expected to fight a war of movement on Napoleonic lines: none had foreseen the growth of defensive trenches.). The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). border-radius: 3px; There was another limitation. He had a reputation as a fine strategist and was good at turning plans into practical operations. Your email address will not be published. The attacking soldiers advancing just behind the barrage could then jump the enemy in the trench. ); Né dans le nord de la France, Patrice Courcelle poursuit des études classiques et reçoit une courte formation aux Beaux-Arts de Lille. The Germans were now also using a new and deadly form of gas-mustard-with which many of the troops were deluged before they went over the top. These were drawn from the citizen militia, whose ability was summed up by the young iconoclast and future military theorist J.F.C. He reveals how the Service Chiefs were set at odds by the system, almost as rivals in the making, with responsibility diffuse and authority ambiguous. The British High Command on the Western Front - Pt 1 Introduction. For if Haig was to obtain the spectacular results forecast, his advance would need to be swift-or the Germans would bring up reinforcements to block it. On 4 October, rain started to fall. Most of the defences on the right-on the crucial high ground of the Gheluvelt Plateau-which gave the defenders such excellent views of the battlefield, were missed or inadequately bombarded. border-color: #333333 !important; In the prevailing conditions an announcement to capture the Sea of Tranquility on the Moon would have been just as sensible. At various intervals along their trench would be machine-guns which fired 600 rounds per minute and which were pre-aimed at gaps deliberately left in the wire. His sources concerning the Germans therefore reached him from `tainted’ (i. e. Catholic) sources.

One word from the politicians to stop the campaign and it would have ceased. Often the opinion of a junior tactical commander led the entire strategy of the MoD, not the other way around, as it should have been. Change ). They were particularly lacking in the heavier calibres.

"Victory" in such conflicts is always hard to gauge and domestic political backing for them was never robust. margin-left: auto;

The civilians would not attend. And the British had actually aided and abetted the forces of nature. There remained, however, conditions in which these techniques would not work. What this meant for those soldiers who were making an attack was dire. There was every reason to treat it with extreme care. Faced with a form of warfare that few expected, Haig clung stubbornly to his pre-war concepts until faced with overwhelming empirical evidence to the … Yet the decision to put this plan into operation was not Haig’s to make. background-color:#ffffff ! line-height: 1.7em!important; Yet in the first year of the war, no army-German, French or British-had sufficient guns to destroy trench systems. Username:Password:RegisterLost your password? Only a direct hit from a heavy artillery shell could cause death or injury. Under these conditions artillery accuracy-or even bringing forward an adequate supply of shells-was out of the question.

But its rate of advance of 100 yards in eight minutes was much too fast. So in bad weather the artillery’s `eye in the sky’ would be blinded. The artillery was blinded. Haig declared that his aim was now not the capture of the Belgian coast but merely the reduced one of capturing the Passchendaele Ridge. That it did not do so owed nothing to its commanders. .ihc-login-template-6 .impu-form-submit input:hover {

Those guns that could fire sank into the slime after every shot they fired. DOCUMENT ! who was responsible for this state of affairs? The Canadian Corps replaced the Anzacs and struggled towards the Passchendaele Ridge for the next six weeks. Portal was wise and diplomatic head of the RAF. jQuery(document).ready( Your email address will not be published. Incredibly, in the light of recent events, he elected the Italian Army to deliver it. It may be much less well-known that in both World Wars there was, on occasion, an extra-judicial practice within the British military of executing soldiers who would not fight in the heat of battle. "Victory" in such conflicts is always hard to gauge and domestic political backing for them was never robust.

The British High Command on the Western Front - Pt 1 Introduction.

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